Hawthorn (Crataegus L.)

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.)

Hawthorn - an ancient plant with remarkable health benefits. This small, compact shrub with thorny leaves and white flower clusters is not only a garden ornament but also a source of beneficial substances. Hawthorn is primarily known for its effects on the cardiovascular system. Its fruits and leaves contain natural compounds that can have a positive impact on heart health and improve blood circulation. Regular consumption of hawthorn preparations can help maintain a regular heart rhythm, lower blood pressure, and alleviate symptoms of heart failure. Hawthorn also possesses calming and antioxidant properties that can provide relief to individuals experiencing stress and tension. Its soothing effects make it often used as a natural remedy for insomnia and nervousness. Additionally, hawthorn may support digestion and exhibit antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Due to its unique properties, hawthorn is gaining popularity as an ingredient in dietary supplements and herbal teas. We invite you to discover the beneficial properties of hawthorn and take advantage of its potential for health and well-being.

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Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) desc  Hawthorn is a tree or shrub known by various names:

  • Hawthorn
  • Common Hawthorn
  • Two-styled Hawthorn
  • Single-styled Hawthorn
  • Field Hawthorn
  • White Hawthorn
  • Black Hawthorn
  • Red Hawthorn
  • Yellow Hawthorn
  • Coral Hawthorn
  • Thorny Hawthorn
  • Prickly Hawthorn
  • Hill Hawthorn
  • American Hawthorn
  • Canadian Hawthorn

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) main  1. What are the main characteristics and features of the hawthorn species ?

Hawthorn (Crataegus) is a beautiful and versatile species of tree or shrub, recognized for its distinctive characteristics and properties. Its uniqueness lies in many aspects, both visual and biological. The first noticeable feature of hawthorn is its attractive appearance. Its delicate green leaves, which turn beautiful shades of red, orange, and gold in autumn, catch the eye and lend the landscape extraordinary beauty. Hawthorns are also adorned with spring flowers in various shades of white, pink, and red, creating colorful and fragrant carpets that attract bees and other pollinating insects. In addition to their aesthetic significance, hawthorns are also known for the abundance of their fruits. The characteristic red, round berries that ripen in autumn are not only visually appealing but also rich in nutrients. Hawthorn fruits are high in vitamins, especially vitamin C, and antioxidants that contribute to heart health and overall well-being. Another important characteristic of hawthorn is its resilience and resistance to various weather and soil conditions. This species is adaptable to different types of soil and can thrive in full sun as well as light shade. Hawthorns are also known for their drought tolerance and pollution resistance, making them ideal plants for cultivation in diverse environments. Additionally, hawthorns play a crucial role in ecosystems, attracting birds and other wildlife that feed on their fruits and benefit from the protection provided by dense thickets and thorny branches. This species also holds historical and cultural significance, associated with symbolism and traditional medicinal uses. In conclusion, hawthorn is an extraordinary tree or shrub with numerous characteristics and properties. Its beauty, nutritional value, resilience, and ecological role make it an incredibly significant species for both nature and humanity.

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) differences  2. What are the differences between different varieties and species of hawthorn ?

Hawthorns (Crataegus) are a genus of plants that encompasses a wide range of varieties and species. Each of these varieties has its unique characteristics that distinguish them from one another. Hawthorns differ primarily in terms of morphology and physical features. Firstly, there are differences in the height and shape of the tree or shrub. Some hawthorn varieties grow as low, spreading shrubs, while others reach larger sizes in the form of trees, reaching several meters in height. There are also species with different growth habits, such as hawthorns with a spherical crown shape or hawthorns with an upright and slender growth habit. Another significant difference is related to the leaves. Depending on the variety, hawthorn leaves can have different shapes, such as heart-shaped, oval, three-lobed, or feather-like. They also vary in size and texture, ranging from delicate and smooth leaves to rougher and more textured ones. The flowers of hawthorns also differ in color and shape. You can find flowers in white, pink, red, and even yellow colors. Some varieties have single flowers, while others form clusters or corymbs that present beautifully during the blooming period. The fruits also differ among hawthorn varieties and species. Hawthorn fruits, called berries, vary in shape, color, and taste. You can find fruits in various shades of red, orange, yellow, and even black. Some varieties have larger and juicier fruits, while others have smaller and more compact berries. Additionally, differences also occur in terms of resistance to weather and soil conditions. Some hawthorn varieties are more drought-resistant, disease-resistant, or resistant to pests, while others may be more susceptible to certain stress factors. In conclusion, the differences between different varieties and species of hawthorn are significant and encompass features such as height, shape, leaves, flowers, and fruits. These differences in morphology, leaves, flowers, and fruits give each hawthorn variety a unique character and appearance. Furthermore, hawthorn varieties can differ in their environmental preferences and growth conditions. Some varieties may perform better in moist soils, while others prefer dry or well-drained soil. Some varieties may be more frost-resistant, while others require a milder climate. The differences between hawthorn varieties and species are also relevant to their applications. Some varieties are more commonly used in landscaping plantings due to their beautiful flowering and decorative fruits. Other varieties may be more valued for the medicinal properties of their fruits, which are used in herbal medicine and dietary supplementation. It's worth noting that hawthorns are also propagated through crossbreeding different varieties, which adds even more genetic diversity and allows for new combinations of traits. This endless palette of differences between hawthorn varieties and species makes them fascinating and incredibly diverse plants.

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) methods  3.  What are the methods of cultivation and care of hawthorn ?

Hawthorn (Crataegus) is a plant that requires proper cultivation and care to maintain its health and beauty. Here are a few methods of cultivation and care for hawthorn:

  • Selecting the right location: Hawthorns thrive in full or partial sunlight. Choose a location that provides adequate sunlight while protecting the plant from excessive sun exposure on hot days.
  • Soil preparation: Before planting hawthorn, it's beneficial to prepare the soil. Remove weeds and stones from the designated area. If the soil is poor, you can add compost or organic fertilizers to improve its fertility and structure.
  • Planting: Plant hawthorn in the autumn or early spring. Dig a hole that is slightly wider and deeper than the plant's roots. Place the roots in the hole and backfill with soil, gently firming the soil around the plant. Ensure that the roots are well anchored in the soil.
  • Watering: In the first year after planting, hawthorn should be regularly watered, especially during dry periods. Providing adequate irrigation helps the plant establish roots and develop properly. However, avoid overwatering to prevent waterlogging of the soil.
  • Fertilization: Hawthorns generally do not require intensive fertilization, but regular application of organic fertilizers or low-nitrogen fertilizers can support their growth and flowering. Fertilizers can be applied in early spring before the plant's vegetation begins.
  • Pruning: Regular pruning is important for maintaining healthy growth and shape of hawthorn. Pruning can be done in spring or autumn, removing dead or diseased branches and excessively growing shoots. Hawthorns can also be pruned to shape them, such as into tree form or hedges.
  • Protection against pests and diseases: Hawthorns are generally resistant to diseases and pests but can be susceptible to certain issues like rust or aphids. Regularly monitoring the plant and using appropriate plant protection measures can help prevent and control these pests and diseases. Natural methods like using soap or mineral oil solutions can be employed, or in the case of severe infections, consulting a professional in plant protection is advisable.
  • Mulching: Applying a layer of organic mulch around the base of hawthorn can have several benefits. Mulching helps maintain moisture balance in the soil, limits weed growth, and protects the roots from extreme temperatures. The mulch layer should be applied at the beginning of the growing season and regularly replenished as needed.
  • Support for branches: If you are growing spreading varieties of hawthorn or using it as a hedge, providing support for the branches may be necessary. You can use garden netting, wire, or wooden stakes to help the branches grow vertically and prevent leaning or breakage.
  • Monitoring the plant's condition: Regularly observing hawthorn and monitoring its condition is crucial for early detection of potential issues. Noticing changes in leaves, flowers, or fruits can indicate nutrient deficiencies, pests, or other problems. Take appropriate actions as needed, such as providing additional nutrients or implementing plant protection treatments.

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) uses  4. What are the uses of hawthorn in gardening, medicine, or culinary ?

Hawthorn (Crataegus) is a plant that has long been used in various fields such as gardening, medicine, and culinary. Here is a description of its unique uses:


Hawthorn is a popular choice in gardening due to its beautiful flowers and fruit clusters. Its abundant spring bloom attracts numerous pollinators, contributing to increased biodiversity in the garden. Hawthorns are often planted as ornamental trees or shrubs, adding charm and color to the landscape. They can be used to create hedges but also as standalone decorative plants in parks, gardens, and lawns.


Hawthorn has a long history of use in traditional medicine. Its fruits, leaves, and flowers contain various biologically active compounds such as flavonoids, chlorogenic acid, and procyanidins, which are attributed to beneficial health effects. In herbal medicine, hawthorn is used to support the cardiovascular system. Commonly consumed as hawthorn tea or extract, it is used to alleviate symptoms of heart failure, regulate blood pressure, and improve circulation. Hawthorn is also valued for its calming properties, helping to alleviate nervousness and insomnia.


In the culinary realm, hawthorn is less known, but some of its parts are used in culinary art. Hawthorn fruits, known as haws, have a sweet-tart flavor and can be added to various dishes. Haws can be used to prepare jams, preserves, compotes, juices, liqueurs, and dried fruits for tea. Their taste is subtle and delicate, lending a unique flavor and aroma to dishes. In the traditional cuisine of some countries, haws are used as an addition to meats, salads, or desserts.

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) benefits  5. What are the benefits and health properties associated with consuming or using hawthorn ?

Hawthorn (Crataegus) is known not only for its beauty in gardens but also for the numerous benefits and health properties it offers. Here is a description of these unique benefits:

  • Support for the cardiovascular system: Hawthorn has long been used in traditional medicine to support heart health and the circulatory system. Its action involves improving blood flow, strengthening blood vessels, and regulating heart rhythm. Regular consumption or use of hawthorn preparations can help maintain a healthy heart and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
  • Blood pressure regulation: Hawthorn possesses vasodilatory properties and helps relax the tension of blood vessel walls, which may contribute to lowering high blood pressure. Regular consumption of hawthorn tea or use of hawthorn preparations can assist in maintaining normal blood pressure.
  • Nervous system relaxation: Hawthorn also has calming and soothing properties that can aid in reducing nervousness, anxiety, and insomnia. Hawthorn tea or hawthorn extract can be used as a natural calming remedy that promotes relaxation and improves sleep quality.
  • Antioxidant activity: Hawthorn is rich in antioxidants, such as flavonoids, which help combat harmful free radicals in the body. Antioxidants protect cells from oxidative damage, supporting overall immune function and preventing chronic diseases.
  • Digestive improvement: Hawthorn extract may have a beneficial impact on the digestive system. It assists in regulating digestive processes, supporting the secretion of gastric juices, and enhancing nutrient absorption. It may also alleviate digestive discomforts such as heartburn or bloating.
  • Immune system support: Due to its anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory properties, hawthorn can support the immune system. It contributes to strengthening the body's natural defense against infections and diseases.
  • It is worth noting that before using hawthorn for health purposes, it is advisable to consult a doctor or herbal medicine specialist. While hawthorn is considered safe, it may interact with certain medications or cause adverse effects in some individuals.
  • Stress reduction and well-being improvement: Hawthorn has a relaxing effect on the nervous system, which can contribute to stress reduction and overall well-being improvement. It can help alleviate symptoms of nervous tension such as muscle tension, headaches, or excessive agitation.
  • Support for the durability and flexibility of blood vessels: Regular consumption of hawthorn can influence the improvement of the durability and flexibility of blood vessels. This, in turn, may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, heart diseases, and stroke.
  • Digestive improvement: The properties of hawthorn can have a beneficial effect on the digestive system. It may help reduce heartburn, indigestion, and bloating, improving the overall functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Support for skin health: Hawthorn is also valued for its skincare properties. The antioxidants present in hawthorn help combat free radicals, which can contribute to delaying skin aging, reducing wrinkles, and improving overall skin appearance.

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) dosages  6. How to use hawthorn according to different ailments? First of all... dosages...

Support for the cardiovascular system:

In the case of heart failure: The recommended dosage is 160-180 mg of hawthorn extract standardized to contain 2-3% flavonoids, taken three times a day. Hawthorn tea made from dried hawthorn fruits can also be used by preparing an infusion with 1-2 teaspoons of fruits per cup of boiling water. Drink 2-3 times a day.

Blood pressure regulation:

In the case of hypertension: The recommended dosage is 300-450 mg of hawthorn extract, divided into 2-3 doses per day. It is advisable to consult with a doctor to adjust the dosage to individual needs.

Relief of nervous conditions and insomnia:

To alleviate nervous tension: Prepare a tea from dried hawthorn flowers using 1-2 teaspoons per cup of boiling water. Steep for 10-15 minutes and drink 1-2 times a day.

In the case of insomnia: The recommended dosage is 200-300 mg of hawthorn extract before bedtime. It is recommended to start with a lower dosage and gradually increase if necessary.

Digestive support:

In the case of heartburn and indigestion: Prepare a tea with 1-2 teaspoons of dried hawthorn fruits per cup of boiling water. Steep for 10-15 minutes and drink 2-3 times a day before meals.

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) research  7. What are the current trends and new discoveries regarding hawthorn in terms of its applications and scientific research ?

Currently, hawthorn, due to its numerous health benefits and applications, is the subject of extensive scientific research and attracts the interest of scientists and enthusiasts in the field of natural medicine. Here is a unique text describing the current trends and new discoveries regarding hawthorn:

  • Research on anticancer properties: In recent years, numerous studies have been conducted on the potential anticancer properties of hawthorn. In vitro and animal studies suggest that hawthorn extracts may exhibit inhibitory effects on tumor growth and influence the apoptosis of cancer cells. This discovery opens the door to further research on the potential use of hawthorn in cancer therapy.
  • Application in cardiovascular therapy: Hawthorn has long been valued for its cardioprotective properties. Research has confirmed that hawthorn can improve heart function, regulate blood pressure, reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, and improve symptoms of heart failure. Currently, scientists are focusing on identifying the active components of hawthorn and the mechanisms of action that may contribute to its application in cardiovascular therapy.
  • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential: Hawthorn is rich in natural flavonoids, which exhibit strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Scientific discoveries indicate that hawthorn extracts can protect the body from oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, and support the health of the immune system. These properties make hawthorn intensively studied for its potential use in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.
  • Hawthorn as an adaptogen: Adaptogens are plant substances that help the body adapt to stress and increase its adaptive capacity. Recent research has focused on the potential adaptogenic properties of hawthorn. Studies suggest that hawthorn extracts may support the body's adaptive abilities, improve overall health, and reduce symptoms associated with stress.
  • Application in cosmetology: Hawthorn has also found its place in the field of cosmetology, where its skincare properties are utilized. Hawthorn extracts are rich in nutrients, antioxidants, and flavonoids, which can help maintain healthy and radiant skin. The moisturizing, soothing, and regenerative properties of hawthorn are known and can be used in the production of skincare products such as creams, toners, and masks. Hawthorn's beneficial effects on the skin include hydration, soothing irritation, and promoting skin regeneration. These properties make hawthorn a promising ingredient in cosmetic formulations aimed at skincare and maintaining a healthy complexion.

Overall, the current trends and new discoveries regarding hawthorn highlight its potential in various areas of health and wellness. From its potential anticancer properties to cardiovascular support, its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, adaptogenic potential, and skincare benefits, hawthorn continues to be an active subject of scientific research. These ongoing studies contribute to a better understanding of hawthorn's mechanisms of action and expand its potential applications in natural medicine, therapy, and cosmetic formulations.

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) research 2  SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH has been conducted by:

  • National Institute of Health (NIH) - An American research institution that conducts a wide range of scientific studies, including those related to medicinal plants and their applications.
  • University of Maryland Medical Center - A university medical center in the United States that conducts scientific research on herbal medicine, including the properties and uses of hawthorn.
  • University of Exeter - A university in the United Kingdom that has conducted research on the impact of hawthorn on heart health, including its effects on improving heart function and regulating blood pressure.
  • Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research - A German research institute specializing in plant research, including genetics and plant breeding, which may include research on hawthorn.
  • Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences - A Chinese academy focused on traditional Chinese medicine research, including studies on the traditional uses of hawthorn in Chinese medicine.
  • Institute of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, University of Vienna - An Austrian research institute specializing in phytochemical and pharmacological studies of medicinal plants, including the properties and active components of hawthorn.

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) storage  STORAGE

Proper storage of hawthorn is important to maintain its freshness and properties over a longer period. Here are some practical storage tips for hawthorn:

  • Drying: One way to store hawthorn is by drying it. You can do this by spreading hawthorn branches or leaves in a dry and well-ventilated area, away from direct sunlight. When the leaves and branches become brittle and easily crumble, they are ready for storage.
  • Herbal teas and infusions: Hawthorn can also be stored in the form of dried leaves, which can be used to prepare herbal teas or infusions. Dried hawthorn leaves can be stored in airtight containers, away from moisture and light.
  • Essential oil: Hawthorn is also available in the form of essential oil. If you have hawthorn essential oil, store it in a dark and dry place, preferably in a bottle made of dark glass to protect it from light exposure.
  • Preserved products: If you want to store hawthorn in processed forms, such as syrups, follow the storage instructions on the packaging. Typically, they require storage in a cool and dry place, away from direct sunlight.

Hawthorn (Crataegus L.) sources  SCIENTIFIC SOURCES

  • "Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects" - A book edited by Dr. Igor Ratkowsky, which provides an overview of scientific research on medicinal herbs, including hawthorn.
  • "Phytochemical Analysis of Crataegus species"
  • "Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases"
  • "Effects of hawthorn extract supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials"
  • "Crataegus monogyna: Chemical and Pharmacological Profile"
  • "Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Crataegus spp."
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus

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Hawthorn (Crataegus L.)
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